Initial Thoughts on Personas, Use Cases, and Access Patterns for Quantum Computing

  1. In a nutshell
  2. Quantum computing as a sector of the overall computing industry
  3. Introduction to personas, use cases and access patterns
  4. Archetype = persona = role
  5. My previous efforts at personas, use cases, and access patterns for other fields
  6. The context — quantum computing
  7. Intersection of workforce and applications
  8. Some immediate difficulties
  9. STEM
  10. QSTEM — focusing on the quantum aspects of STEM
  11. The two easy, key personas for quantum computing: quantum algorithm designer and quantum application developer
  12. The essential personas for building quantum computers
  13. Personas, jobs, positions, and roles
  14. Job responsibilities or role responsibilities as access patterns for a persona
  15. Split or fractional roles and split or fractional personas
  16. Primary or secondary roles and primary or secondary personas
  17. Primary quantum role or persona vs. primary classical role or persona
  18. Degree of focus on quantum role or persona
  19. Are there any pure quantum jobs, positions, roles, or personas?
  20. Plenty of personas or roles where there is some quantum content, but the bulk of the role is purely classical
  21. Also personas or roles where quantum content is merely peripheral or incidental, and the bulk of the persona or role is purely classical
  22. And some personas and roles where there is no quantum component to the role at all
  23. Whether quantum knowledge and experience are required or can be learned on the job
  24. Quantum requirement
  25. Not all quantum personas or roles have quantum in their job title
  26. Is a quantum engineer a hardware engineer, a software engineer, both, or either?
  27. Who deserves Quantum in their job title, role, and persona?
  28. Persona synonyms — A rose by any other name would… be the same persona
  29. Software Engineer vs. Software Developer vs. Software Development Engineer (SDE) vs. Software Dev Engineer vs. Programmer vs. Software Programmer vs. Coder vs. Quantum Developer vs. Quantum Software Developer vs. Quantum Software Engineer vs. Quantum Engineer
  30. Are quantum algorithms software?
  31. Area of interest
  32. IBM quantum developer personas: kernel developer, algorithm developer, and model developer
  33. Level of skill or experience
  34. Background, education, training, skills, and experience needed for each persona or role
  35. Specific roles vs. general functional areas for personas
  36. Sectors
  37. Producers and consumers of quantum computing
  38. Where can we find the personas and use cases of quantum computing?
  39. Vendors
  40. Vendor categories
  41. Vendor categories vs. use cases and use case categories
  42. Customers and industries
  43. Customers and industries vs. use cases and use case categories
  44. Research
  45. Management personas and roles
  46. Workers or contributors
  47. Fields of science
  48. Types of engineers
  49. Personas for quantum computing
  50. Persona names are unsettled, for now
  51. Persona name = job title — for now
  52. Job titles in quantum computing
  53. Personas for audiences of marketing
  54. Vendor category-specific personas
  55. Use case category-specific personas
  56. Use case-specific personas
  57. Application areas for quantum computing
  58. Application areas = particular applications + application categories
  59. Use case categories for quantum computing
  60. Application areas as use case categories for quantum computing
  61. Use cases for quantum computing
  62. Abstract use cases
  63. Access patterns for quantum computing
  64. Access patterns by persona
  65. The Hitchhiking Cat’s Guide to Getting a Job in Quantum Computing
  66. What’s not in this paper
  67. Skills for quantum computing
  68. Career paths in quantum computing
  69. Education for a career in quantum computing
  70. Training for a career in quantum computing
  71. My original proposal for this topic
  72. Summary and conclusions

In a nutshell

  1. Personas, use cases, and access patterns enable us to discuss quantum computing in terms of who is trying to do what and how they are going to do it.
  2. Personas, use cases, and access patterns lie at the intersection of workforce and applications, with personas corresponding to jobs, positions, or roles of the workforce, and use cases corresponding to applications.
  3. Quantum computing falls under the general rubric of STEM — Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, just as does classical computing.
  4. Most of the jobs, personas, roles, use cases, and access patterns mentioned in this paper fall under STEM.
  5. A moderate fraction do not fall directly under STEM, but since they at least loosely support STEM work, they can still be at least loosely considered as part of or related to or supportive of STEM.
  6. I define QSTEM to focus on the subset of STEM which relates most closely to quantum computing and quantum information science in general.
  7. So this paper focuses on personas, use cases, and access patterns of QSTEM.
  8. Personas represent the individuals performing roles in jobs or positions.
  9. Job titles may or may not accurately reflect the true nature of the underlying persona or role.
  10. Use cases are typically the applications or problems being addressed.
  11. Access patterns are the operations, skills, capabilities, functions, tasks, methods, and activities which personas are performing.
  12. Access patterns generally align with job responsibilities or role responsibilities — persona responsibilities.
  13. Different personas have different needs, and different use cases have different methods.
  14. Some personas have common needs and share use cases, but not always.
  15. Some access patterns are common between multiple personas and use cases, but not always.
  16. There is a significant degree of overlap between quantum computing and classical computing, so many of the personas, use cases, and access patterns of classical computing also appear in quantum computing.
  17. Every technical field deserves a detailed enumeration of personas, use cases, and access patterns. Quantum computing included.

Quantum computing as a sector of the overall computing industry

Some may consider quantum computing to be an industry or field — and in research and academia it is a field, but for the purposes of this informal paper I consider quantum computing to be a sector of the overall computing industry — the quantum computing sector.

Introduction to personas, use cases and access patterns

A persona is simply a type of person (an individual) who has a type of role. They may have a worker role, a consumer role, or maybe a management role, as just a few examples. Generally, a persona is associated with a role or job, with a job description, job responsibilities, and job requirements.

Archetype = persona = role

Some people might prefer or be more familiar with using the term archetype rather than the term persona as is done in this paper. They’re essentially synonyms for the purposes of this paper, and both refer to roles.

My previous efforts at personas, use cases, and access patterns for other fields

I’ve already completed efforts to detail personas, use cases, and access patterns for two other technical fields:

  1. Database Personas, Use Cases, and Access Patterns
  2. Cybersecurity Personas, Use Cases, and Access Patterns

The context — quantum computing

Just in case some readers interested in this topic are not so intimately familiar with the subject matter of quantum computing, here is some background for review:

  1. What Is Quantum Computing?
  2. What Is a Quantum Computer?
  3. What Is Quantum Information?
  4. What Is Quantum Information Science?
  5. What Are Quantum Effects and How Do They Enable Quantum Information Science?

Intersection of workforce and applications

Personas, use cases, and access patterns lie at the intersection of workforce and applications, with personas corresponding to jobs, positions, or roles of the workforce, and use cases corresponding to applications.

Some immediate difficulties

Even before we start getting into technical details we immediately run into some rather thorny issues:

  1. Overlap between classical and quantum computing. Many personas, use cases, and access patterns occupy a gray area between classical and quantum computing, being neither purely classical or purely quantum, but some varying degree of blend.
  2. Cooperation between classical and quantum computing. Personas are distinct between classical and quantum, but the two need to cooperate for shared use cases — some use cases require both classical and quantum personas.
  3. Non-technical personas, use cases, and access patterns. There is a quantum component, but not strictly technical or technology per se.
  4. Management. Not 100% focused on a technical role or technology per se, but need to have at least some degree of familiarity or even deep knowledge of various aspects of quantum computing.
  5. Quantum-aware personas, use cases, and access patterns. Not directly involved with the technology, but their job functions can impact quantum computing efforts.
  6. Many synonyms in job titles. A given persona may surface in a variety of job titles, and vice versa.

STEM

Quantum computing falls under the general rubric of STEMScience, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, just as does classical computing.

QSTEM — focusing on the quantum aspects of STEM

For the purposes of this paper I will use the contrived term QSTEM to refer to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) matters related to quantum computing and the other areas of quantum information science (QIS) — quantum metrology, quantum sensing, quantum communication, and quantum networking.

  1. Technically all of quantum computing and the other areas of quantum information science are included in STEM, by definition.
  2. QSTEM narrows STEM to only those areas which directly relate to quantum computing and the rest of quantum information science.
  3. QSTEM broadens or supplements STEM to include more recent work in quantum computing and the rest of quantum information science that might not have even existed in STEM 20 years ago or in some cases up to 40 years ago.
  4. Finally, most simply, QSTEM can refer to that more recent work in quantum computing and the rest of quantum information science which occurred primarily in the past 20 years as well as some up to 40 years ago.
  5. So, in that last sense, QSTEM refers to the more recent work in quantum of STEM which is occurring at present and in recent years and up to 20 years ago and in some cases up to 40 years ago, as well as work in quantum — and related STEM areas which may occur in future years.

The two easy, key personas for quantum computing: quantum algorithm designer and quantum application developer

Once quantum computers are built, there are only two essential personas for quantum computing:

  1. Quantum algorithm designer. Constructs the essence of a quantum computation.
  2. Quantum application developer. Invokes quantum computations and uses the results in classical code.

The essential personas for building quantum computers

Quantum computing cannot occur until the real quantum computers are actually built. The essential personas for building quantum computers are:

  1. Quantum computing theorists. Figure out the essence of how to implement quantum computing in real hardware using real physics, real math, and real computer science. Develop the theory of quantum programming models.
  2. Qubit theorists. Figure out how to construct, operate, and control individual qubits. Explore various technologies for qubits.
  3. Qubit engineers. Figure out how to implement the designs for qubit technologies.
  4. Qubit control theorists. Figure out how to orchestrate the physical qubits to accomplish quantum computations.
  5. Qubit control engineers. Figure out how to implement the designs for control of qubits. Electronic. Digital. Analog. Radio frequency (RF). Microwave. Laser. Calibration. Performance characterization.
  6. Quantum computation theorists. Figure out how to construct complete quantum computations. Algorithms and circuits. Quantum logic gates. Unitary transformation matrices. Quantum programming models.
  7. Quantum computation engineers. Figure out how to implement the translation of quantum computations (algorithms, circuits, gates, unitary transformation matrices) into qubit control signals. Performance testing and characterization.
  8. Quantum computation execution software engineers. Design the software to execute quantum computations.
  9. Quantum computer system management software engineers. Manage the overall quantum computer system.
  10. Quantum computer job management software engineers. Manage the processing of incoming quantum jobs.
  11. Quantum computer server software engineers. Manage incoming network requests and streaming of results via the network.
  12. Quantum computer mechanical engineers. Design the physical structure of the quantum computer. The metal frame. The cryostat. The enclosure. Insulation. Shielding.
  13. Quantum computer electrical engineers. Design the overall electrical and electronic structure of the quantum computer. Power supply. Power distribution. Cabling — power, network, between subsystems, between modules, between components. The classical computer system which manages the overall quantum computer system.
  14. Support software developers. Application frameworks. Libraries. Analysis tools. Simulators.
  15. Quantum simulator software engineers. Software engineers who design and develop classical quantum simulators — simulating quantum computers on classical computers.
  16. Tool developers. Software development kits (SDK). Software tools to facilitate design, debugging, and testing of quantum algorithms, and the development, debugging, and testing of quantum applications.

Personas, jobs, positions, and roles

There is a close correspondence between personas, jobs, positions, and roles.

  1. Job title.
  2. Role responsibilities. Or job responsibilities.
  3. Job requirements.
  4. Background requirements.
  5. Educational requirements. Degrees. Areas of study.
  6. Training requirements.
  7. Experience requirements.
  8. Skill requirements.
  9. Knowledge requirements.

Job responsibilities or role responsibilities as access patterns for a persona

Job responsibilities or role responsibilities define what operations, skills, capabilities, functions, tasks, methods, or activities a given persona or role is expected to perform.

Split or fractional roles and split or fractional personas

Not every role is a cleanly-focused single role. It’s not uncommon for a person to wear two (or more) hats — for a single person or position to fill two or more roles or personas — they have split roles or fractional roles, or split personas or fractional personas.

Primary or secondary roles and primary or secondary personas

Similar to a split or fractional role, or split or fractional persona, one of the roles or personas will be the dominant or primary role or primary person, while the other (or others, for more than one) is a secondary role or secondary persona.

Primary quantum role or persona vs. primary classical role or persona

So, an individual might have a primary role or persona which is quantum in nature with a secondary role or persona which is classical in nature, or the individual might have a primary role or persona which is classical in nature with a secondary role or persona which is quantum in nature.

Degree of focus on quantum role or persona

So, given split, fractional, and primary and secondary roles and personas, it makes sense to talk about the degree to which a given position or person is focused on quantum or classical tasks:

  1. 100% quantum.
  2. 90–95% quantum, 5–10% classical.
  3. 80% quantum, 20% classical.
  4. 75% quantum, 25% classical.
  5. 60% quantum, 40% classical.
  6. 50% quantum, 50% classical. An even split.
  7. 60% classical, 40% quantum.
  8. 75% classical, 25% quantum.
  9. 80% classical, 20% quantum.
  10. 90–95% classical, 5–10% quantum.
  11. 100% classical.
  1. Exclusively quantum.
  2. Almost exclusively quantum, but with a little classical.
  3. Mostly quantum, but some classical.
  4. Equally split between quantum and classical.
  5. Mostly classical, but some quantum.
  6. Almost exclusively classical, but with a little quantum.
  7. Exclusively classical.

Are there any pure quantum jobs, positions, roles, or personas?

Okay, technically, many quantum computing jobs have tasks which require some classical computing, so it’s fair to say that such jobs tasks are not absolutely 100% pure quantum, but I wouldn’t count peripheral or ancillary tasks which involve classical computing as diminishing the quantum-ness of a job, position, role or persona.

Plenty of personas or roles where there is some quantum content, but the bulk of the role is purely classical

Many personas and roles in quantum computing focus mostly or primarily on purely classical tasks, with quantum tasks being a relatively minor component of the job.

Also personas or roles where quantum content is merely peripheral or incidental, and the bulk of the persona or role is purely classical

Some personas (roles) still have a rather small or incidental quantum component even if the vast bulk of the persona has a classical focus.

And some personas and roles where there is no quantum component to the role at all

In some cases a job focuses exclusively on classical tasks, which ultimately support quantum tasks of the jobs of others, but the individual with such a job may not do anything quantum themselves.

Whether quantum knowledge and experience are required or can be learned on the job

Different organizations and different positions (personas) will vary as to whether quantum-specific knowledge and experience are required or can be learned or gained on the job.

  1. Quantum knowledge is required.
  2. Quantum knowledge can be learned on the job.
  3. Quantum knowledge is not needed. A classical position.
  1. Quantum experience is required.
  2. Quantum experience will be gained on the job.
  3. Quantum experience is not needed. A classical position.

Quantum requirement

It’s not always clear which personas (roles, positions, or jobs) require explicit quantum knowledge and experience.

  1. Quantum Physicist.
  2. Quantum Engineer.
  3. Quantum Hardware Engineer.
  4. Quantum Software Engineer.
  5. Quantum Algorithms Software Engineer.
  1. Physicist, Quantum.
  2. Engineer, Quantum.
  3. Hardware Engineer, Quantum.
  4. Software Engineer, Quantum.
  5. Software Engineer, Quantum Algorithms.

Not all quantum personas or roles have quantum in their job title

It’s not uncommon for quantum personas or roles to have the word Quantum in their job title, or area of interest, as seen in the examples in the preceding section, but sometimes the job title is rather generic and it is only deeper down in the job description or job requirements that quantum shows up.

Is a quantum engineer a hardware engineer, a software engineer, both, or either?

This is a great question, but unfortunately the quantum computing sector is too new and evolving rapidly so that there is no coherent and stable sense of what the title Quantum Engineer really means. So, for now it’s a fielder’s choice for each organization, department, and even individual teams to decide on their own which of these job titles, roles, or personas qualify as Quantum Engineer:

  1. Quantum Engineer.
  2. Quantum Hardware Engineer.
  3. Quantum Software Engineer.
  4. Quantum Software Developer.
  5. Quantum Algorithm Designer.
  6. Quantum Algorithm Developer.
  7. Quantum Algorithm Engineer.
  8. Quantum Algorithm Scientist.
  9. Quantum Application Developer.
  10. Quantum Application Engineer.

Who deserves Quantum in their job title, role, and persona?

We’ve already discussed the degree of quantum content in a given persona or role. Now the question is when it is reasonable to actually put the literal term Quantum in a job title, role or persona. Some possibilities:

  1. Job responsibilities are almost exclusively quantum.
  2. Job responsibilities are mostly quantum.
  3. A significant fraction of job responsibilities are quantum.
  4. Job responsibilities include at least some quantum.
  5. Works with others whose job responsibilities include quantum.
  6. Uniformity across the group. The entire department, team, or other grouping is quantum even if some members are strictly classical.
  7. Overall focus of the entire organization is quantum. Some groups might be strictly quantum, but the goal is uniformity across the entire organization.

Persona synonyms — A rose by any other name would… be the same persona

There are plenty of roles or personas which have different job titles. Some of the differences include:

  1. Additional or fewer adjectives.
  2. Different order of some adjectives.
  3. Actual synonym terms.
  4. Generic vs. specific terms.
  5. Including area of interest in the job title.
  6. Including synonyms for area of interest in the job title.
  7. Including level of experience in the job title. Senior, principal, entry level, I, II, III.
  8. Abbreviating terms.
  9. Inconsistent abbreviations.
  10. Use of hyphen vs. comma for separation of base title and area of interest.

Software Engineer vs. Software Developer vs. Software Development Engineer (SDE) vs. Software Dev Engineer vs. Programmer vs. Software Programmer vs. Coder vs. Quantum Developer vs. Quantum Software Developer vs. Quantum Software Engineer vs. Quantum Engineer

As an example of the synonym issue, there is the question of whether Software Engineers and Software Developers are the same, even identical (synonyms), or there are essential nuances of distinction, or even dramatic differences. Alas, I’m afraid it’s a fielder’s choice whether an organization, department, or team chooses to label the persona for individuals who design and develop software as Software Engineers or Software Developers. Or maybe as Software Development Engineers (SDE). Or abbreviated as Software Dev Engineer.

  1. Software Engineer.
  2. Software Developer.
  3. Software Development Engineer (SDE).
  4. Software Dev Engineer.
  5. Programmer.
  6. Software Programmer.
  7. Coder.
  8. Quantum Developer.
  9. Quantum Software Developer.
  10. Quantum Software Engineer.
  11. Quantum Engineer.
  1. Senior Frontend Developer.
  2. Senior Full Stack Developer.

Are quantum algorithms software?

If someone’s job responsibilities include design and development of quantum algorithms, should that be considered a completely distinct persona, or should they still be classified as having a software persona? It could be either, a fielder’s choice — some organizations could say it’s distinct, some say it’s still just software.

  1. Mathematician, Quantum Algorithms.
  2. Physicist, Quantum Algorithms.
  3. Quantum Algorithm Designer.
  4. Quantum Algorithm Developer.
  5. Quantum Algorithm Researcher.
  6. Quantum Research scientist, Quantum Algorithms.
  7. Research Scientist, Quantum Algorithms.
  8. Quantum Engineer.
  1. Computer Scientist.
  2. Principal Software Engineer.
  3. Senior Software Engineer.
  4. Software Developer.
  5. Software Engineer.
  1. Computer Scientist, Quantum Algorithms.
  2. Principal Software Engineer, Quantum Algorithms.
  3. Senior Software Engineer, Quantum Algorithms.
  4. Software Developer, Quantum Algorithms.
  5. Software Engineer, Quantum Algorithms.

Area of interest

Job titles can include both generic roles as well as areas of interest.

  1. Engineer.
  2. Hardware engineer.
  3. Physicist.
  4. Software engineer.
  1. Quantum.
  2. Quantum algorithms.
  3. Frontend.
  4. Full stack.
  1. Quantum Algorithms Software Engineer.
  2. Software Engineer, Quantum Algorithms.
  3. Senior Frontend Developer.
  4. Senior Developer, Frontend.
  5. Senior Full Stack Developer.
  6. Senior Developer, Full Stack.

IBM quantum developer personas: kernel developer, algorithm developer, and model developer

IBM conceptualizes quantum developers in three personas (yes, IBM does indeed call them personas):

  1. Kernel developer. Works at the circuit and gate level. I refer to this as Algorithm Developer or Algorithm Designer.
  2. Algorithm developer. Works at the classical code level, invoking quantum algorithms, preparing input data for the quantum circuit, and processing quantum results for use by the classical code of the application. I refer to this as Quantum Application Developer.
  3. Model developer. Works at the application code level, focused on domain-specific problems. I refer to this as the combination of Quantum Application Developer and Subject Matter Expert.

Level of skill or experience

For job titles for engineers (including software engineers), the level of skill or experience is typically included as either a prefix or a suffix in the job title for the persona:

  1. Principal consulting.
  2. Senior consulting.
  3. Consulting.
  4. Senior principal.
  5. Principal.
  6. Senior.
  7. … III
  8. … II
  9. … I
  10. Entry-level.

Background, education, training, skills, and experience needed for each persona or role

Details for personas or roles such as background, education, training, skills, and experience are beyond the scope of this informal paper.

Specific roles vs. general functional areas for personas

Many personas define specific roles with narrowly-defined role responsibilities, but sometimes it makes more sense to group a number of individual personas into a general functional area. The individual personas are still distinct, but in some contexts it can be helpful to refer to them collectively.

  1. Management.
  2. Executive team.
  3. Senior managers.
  4. Managers.
  5. Team leads.
  6. Workers
  7. Contributors.
  8. Engineering.
  9. Hardware engineering.
  10. Software engineering.
  11. Product management.
  12. Manufacturing.
  13. Marketing.
  14. Sales.
  15. Support.
  16. Algorithm research.
  17. Algorithm development.
  1. Software Developer, Software Engineer, Programmer, Coder, Software Development Engineer, Quantum Engineer, Quantum Software Developer, and Quantum Software Engineer all as Software Development.
  2. Hardware Engineer and Software Engineer as Engineering.
  3. Electrical Engineer and Mechanical Engineer as Hardware Engineer, or just Engineer.
  4. Scientist for scientists from all fields of science — Physicist, Chemist, Biologist, etc.
  5. Manager of Management for Technical Manager and Non-Technical Manager.

Sectors

  1. Academia. Universities and colleges. Research institutions.
  2. Commercial. Corporations and other commercial entities. Vendors and customers. May do some research but generally focus on development, marketing, and consumption of commercial products and services.
  3. Government. Research, funding of research, funding of academic efforts, and consumption of commercial products and services.
  4. Nonprofit organizations. Research institutions, consortiums, standards bodies.

Producers and consumers of quantum computing

All of the personas and use cases of quantum computing divide into two domains:

  1. Producers. Those who research, design, develop, market, distribute, operate, and support quantum computing capabilities, including hardware, software, algorithms, applications, and services. They produce such products and services.
  2. Consumers. Those who acquire or access and utilize quantum computing capabilities, including hardware, software, algorithms, applications, and services. They consume such products and services.
  1. A producer can be a consumer. Consume the quantum products or services of another producer.
  2. A consumer can be a producer. Consume quantum products and services to enable production of its own quantum products and services.

Where can we find the personas and use cases of quantum computing?

Some general characterizations of what types of organizations can be expected to employ personas and have use cases for quantum computing:

  1. Academic quantum research staff.
  2. Academic classes and students.
  3. Staff at quantum hardware vendors.
  4. Staff at quantum research units of large tech companies.
  5. Staff at quantum-focused software startups. Mostly tools and infrastructure software. Also algorithms, applications, and consulting services.
  6. Staff at quantum-focused consulting firms. Assist firms with development or use of quantum computing services, quantum algorithms, and quantum applications. May do development as well, but focused more on consulting for firms rather than general marketing of packaged products and services to a broader audience.
  7. Staff at quantum-focused media startups. Newsletters, web sites, podcasts, videos, conferences, seminars.
  8. Staff at quantum-focused research groups at government agencies.
  9. Quantum enthusiasts at virtually any organization using technology.
  10. Staff at analytic firms. Analysts of quantum computing.
  11. Quantum curious. Anybody. Anywhere.

Vendors

The goal here is not to name specific vendors, but to generally characterize or categorize the products or services which they offer…

Vendor categories

This is not intended to be an all-encompassing list of vendor categories, but reasonably representative of the categories of vendors in the quantum computing sector.

  1. Systems.
  2. Hardware components.
  3. Software tools.
  4. Support software.
  5. Component libraries.
  6. Analysis tools.
  7. Debugging tools.
  8. Simulators.
  9. Algorithms.
  10. Applications.
  11. Consulting.
  12. Strategy.

Vendor categories vs. use cases and use case categories

There may be a one to one correspondence for some vendor categories and use cases or use case categories, but that will not always be the case.

Customers and industries

The goal here is not to name specific customers, but to characterize the nature of their business and what business needs can be satisfied using quantum computing.

  1. Industrial.
  2. Manufacturing.
  3. Materials.
  4. Manufacturing — transportation.
  5. Distribution.
  6. Mining.
  7. Energy.
  8. Construction.
  9. Communication.
  10. Public utilities and services.
  11. Media.
  12. Internet.
  13. Defense.
  14. Aerospace.
  15. Government.
  16. Pharmaceuticals.
  17. Retail.
  18. Consumer products.
  19. Entertainment and sports.
  20. Hospitality.
  21. Healthcare products.
  22. Healthcare services.
  23. Healthcare providers.
  24. Insurance.
  25. Transportation.
  26. Consumers.
  1. Federal or national.
  2. State or province.
  3. Regional.
  4. Local.
  1. Administrative.
  2. Legislative.
  3. Judicial.
  4. Regulatory.
  5. Services to people.
  6. Services to commercial businesses.
  7. Services to academia.
  8. Military.
  9. Intelligence.
  10. Scientific research — national laboratories.
  11. Scientific research — within agencies.

Customers and industries vs. use cases and use case categories

There may be a one to one correspondence for some customers or industries with use cases or use case categories, but that will not always be the case.

Research

  1. Academia.
  2. Corporate — vendors.
  3. Corporate — customers.
  4. Government.
  5. Nonprofit institutes.

Management personas and roles

Management comes in many forms. The major categories or major levels:

  1. Board of directors.
  2. Executives.
  3. Managers.
  4. Supervisors.
  5. Team leaders.
  1. Senior.
  2. Mid-level.
  3. Junior or entry-level.
  1. CEO.
  2. C-level executives.
  3. Senior executives.
  4. Mid-level executives.
  5. Entry-level executives.
  1. Directors.
  2. Senior managers.
  3. Mid-level managers.
  4. Entry-level managers.
  1. Transition or crossover between entry-level management and team leadership.
  1. Large team or complex project.
  2. Moderate size team or moderate complexity project.
  3. Small team or low complexity project.
  4. Individual as a team of one, providing both leadership and contribution.
  1. STEM-focused. Technical.
  2. Non-STEM focused. Non-technical.
  1. Quantum-focused.
  2. Classical-focused.
  3. Non-computing focused. Works with computing professionals, but is not a computing professional themselves and focuses on non-computing tasks that support the computing tasks.

Workers or contributors

Workers and contributors have various dimensions:

  1. Area of expertise.
  2. Type of role.
  3. Level of skill or experience.
  4. Level of autonomy.
  1. Scientist.
  2. Engineer.
  3. Other technical professional.
  4. Other non-technical professional.
  5. Technician.
  1. Theory.
  2. Experimental — laboratory.
  3. Experimental — field.
  4. Applied.
  1. Research. Manage the transition from scientific research to practical application. Hand off technical challenges to research scientists.
  2. Architect. Overall design of products and services.
  3. Senior design. Focus on leading design of specific portions of products and services.
  4. Experienced design. Focus on design of specific portions of products and services.
  5. Entry-level design. Supervised by team lead or collaborate with more experienced team members.
  6. Task-oriented. Focuses on narrow, specific tasks.
  1. Elite. Consulting. Fellow.
  2. Senior.
  3. Experienced or skilled.
  4. Some experience or some skill.
  5. Entry level. Minimal or no experience. Minimal or no skill.
  1. Principal consulting.
  2. Senior consulting.
  3. Consulting.
  4. Senior principal.
  5. Principal.
  6. Senior.
  7. … III
  8. … II
  9. … I
  10. Entry-level.
  1. Works entirely independently.
  2. Works with minimal coordination.
  3. Works with significant coordination.
  4. Minimal supervision.
  5. Moderate supervision.
  6. Directed on specific tasks.

Fields of science

  1. Physics.
  2. Chemistry.
  3. Materials.
  4. Biology.
  5. Medicine.
  6. Computer scientist.
  7. Mathematician.

Types of engineers

Relevant to quantum computing.

  1. Hardware engineer / electrical engineer
  2. Mechanical engineer.
  3. Firmware engineer.
  4. Software engineer.
  1. Analog.
  2. Optical.
  3. Microwave or RF.
  4. Digital.
  5. FPGA developer.
  1. Classical.
  2. Quantum.
  3. Algorithms.
  4. Applications.
  5. Systems.
  6. Infrastructure.
  7. User experience (UX).

Personas for quantum computing

This is simply a brief, high-level summary of personas in quantum computing.

  1. Scientist. Physics in particular.
  2. Engineer. Electrical and mechanical.
  3. Manager. In all areas, but science, hardware, and software in particular.
  4. Technician. In every lab and for every piece of equipment.
  5. Operator. For every piece of equipment.
  6. Software Developer.
  7. Algorithm Designer.
  8. Application Developer.
  9. QA.
  10. Documentation. Tech writers.
  11. Release Engineer.
  12. Strategist.
  13. Product Management.
  14. Legal. Lawyers / attorneys.
  15. Marketing.
  16. Social Media Engagement.
  17. Event coordinator.
  18. Event manager.
  19. Sales.
  20. Training.
  21. Support.
  22. Recruiting.
  23. Human Resources.
  24. Partner Relations.
  25. Community Relations.
  1. Academia. Research. Teaching. Career placement.
  2. Student.
  3. Graduate student.
  4. Doctoral candidate.
  5. Postdoctoral research.
  6. Intern.
  7. Technologist.
  8. Quantum computing enthusiast.
  9. Evangelist.
  10. Outreach.
  11. Outreach coordinator.
  12. Community manager.
  13. Analyst.
  14. Journalist. General media. Technology media. Science media.
  15. Writer.
  16. Book author.
  17. Government agency staff — using quantum computing for applications.
  18. Government agency staff — research, working on policy, promoting, and funding quantum efforts and initiatives. NIST. DOE — national laboratories.
  19. Regulator.
  1. Politician.
  2. Government official.
  3. Policymaker.
  4. Policy analyst.
  5. Regulator.
  6. Agency staff.
  7. Venture capital investor.
  8. Private equity investor.
  9. Investment banker.
  10. Security analyst.
  11. Retail investor.
  12. Quantum curious. Not as serious and committed as quantum computing enthusiasts.
  13. Those seeking to shift from a classical computing job to a job in quantum computing. Education. Training. Experimentation.
  14. Citizen.
  15. Student.

Persona names are unsettled, for now

It is indeed important for each persona to have a unique, clear, meaningful, and distinctive name. Or title, if you prefer. Alas, as of this writing there is no such settled list of persona names. I’ve used some suggested names here in this informal paper, but they are only suggested.

Persona name = job title — for now

So, for now and the indefinite future, it seems reasonable to use job titles as persona names.

  1. Software Engineer.
  2. Software Developer.
  3. Software Development Engineer (SDE).
  4. Programmer.
  5. Coder.
  6. Quantum Developer.
  7. Quantum Software Developer.
  8. Quantum Software Engineer.
  9. Quantum Engineer. When it’s clearly a software role.

Job titles in quantum computing

There is a close relationship between jobs and personas. Or I should say the roles of jobs. And jobs are characterized first by their job title, which generally indicates the corresponding persona fairly closely

  1. Listings currently in the QED-C database.
  2. Some positions may already be filled and no longer available.
  3. Previously filled positions may not be listed.
  4. Any number of actual positions may not have been listed.
  5. There are likely additional entries shown now by QED-C compared to what I observed at the time of this writing.
  6. Some of the positions I listed may already have been removed from the database.
  7. So, this list doesn’t necessarily indicate the true state of positions filled or available in the quantum computing sector.
  1. Accelerated Discovery Software Engineer.
  2. Accountant.
  3. Accounting.
  4. Administrative Business Partner.
  5. Administrative Specialist.
  6. Administrator.
  7. Advanced 3D Packaging Hardware Engineer.
  8. Advanced Electrical Engineer.
  9. Advanced Electrical Engr.
  10. Advanced Laser Scientist.
  11. Advanced Microfabrication Research Scientist.
  12. Advanced Microfabrication Research/Scientist.
  13. Advanced Physicist.
  14. Advanced Processing Solutions Engineer.
  15. Advanced Processing Solutions Engineers and Scientists.
  16. Advanced Processing Solutions Scientist.
  17. Advanced Photonic Integrated Circuit Design Scientist.
  18. Advanced R&D Atomic Physicist.
  19. Algorithm Designer.
  20. Algorithm Developer.
  21. Algorithm Engineer.
  22. AMO Physicist. AMO = Atomic, molecular, and optical physics.
  23. AMO Physicist, Applications, Simulation, and Modeling.
  24. AMO Theoretical Physicist.
  25. Analog Design Engineer.
  26. Analog Mixed Signal IC Design Engineer.
  27. Analyst.
  28. Application Scientist.
  29. Application Scientist, Semiconductor Qubits.
  30. Application Scientist, Superconducting Circuits.
  31. Applications Architect.
  32. Applications/Solutions Architect.
  33. Applied Cryptographer.
  34. Applied Cryptographer, DS-Crypto.
  35. Applied Physicist.
  36. Applied Quantum Scientist.
  37. Applied Researcher.
  38. Applied Scientist.
  39. Applied Scientist, Quantum Technologies.
  40. ASIC Engineer.
  41. Assembly, Integration, and Test Engineer.
  42. Assistant Manager.
  43. Assistant Manager, Marketing Projects.
  44. Associate Physicist.
  45. Associate Physicist/ Physicist.
  46. Associate Quantum Engineer.
  47. Associate Quantum Physicist.
  48. Associate Scientist, Chemistry.
  49. Associate Scientist, Quantum.
  50. Associate Staff Scientist in Chemistry.
  51. Associate Transformational Physicist.
  52. Atomic Physicist.
  53. Atomic Physicist, Experimental.
  54. Backend Engineer.
  55. Backend Software Developer.
  56. Backend Software Developer, Cloud.
  57. Business Development.
  58. Business Development Executive.
  59. Business Development Executive, Pharma.
  60. Business Development Lead.
  61. Business Development Manager.
  62. Business Strategy Associate.
  63. Business Systems Analyst.
  64. Buyer.
  65. Buyer — Quantum Hardware, Quantum Communications and Networking.
  66. CAD Engineer.
  67. CAD/Layout Engineer.
  68. Circuit Designer.
  69. Cloud Architect.
  70. Cloud DevOps Engineer.
  71. Cloud Engineer.
  72. Cloud Engineer/Cloud Systems Analyst.
  73. Cloud Systems Analyst.
  74. Commercial Business Development.
  75. Commercial Business Development Lead.
  76. Community Manager.
  77. Component Engineer.
  78. Computational Analysis Consultant.
  79. Computational Chemist.
  80. Computer Scientist.
  81. Computer Software Engineer.
  82. Configuration Management Specialist.
  83. Consultant.
  84. Consultant, Technology Strategy & Transformation, Banking.
  85. Content Designer.
  86. Content Designer, Quantum.
  87. Content Designer/Technical Copywriter.
  88. Content Manager.
  89. Contract Specialist.
  90. Contributor.
  91. Control System Electrical Engineer.
  92. Control System Technician.
  93. Control Systems Electrical Engineer.
  94. Control Systems Engineer.
  95. Controller.
  96. Corporate Paralegal.
  97. Cryogenic Operations Engineer.
  98. Cryogenic Operations Engineer, Hardware Test Engineering.
  99. Cryogenic Systems Hardware Engineer.
  100. Cryogenic Systems Mechanical Design, Hardware Engineer.
  101. Cryogenic Systems Mechanical Design Hardware Engineer.
  102. Cryogenics Engineer.
  103. Cryogenics Engineer/Scientist.
  104. Cryogenics Scientist.
  105. Cybersecurity Engineer.
  106. Data Center Engineer.
  107. Data Engineer.
  108. Data Scientist.
  109. Data Scientist: Advanced Analytics.
  110. Data Scientist, Advanced Analytics.
  111. Design Engineer.
  112. Developer Relations Manager.
  113. Developer Relations Manager, Quantum Computing.
  114. Development Engineer.
  115. Development Engineer, Control Software.
  116. Device Engineer.
  117. Device Test Engineer.
  118. Device/Component Engineer.
  119. Devices Surface Scientist, Hardware Engineer.
  120. DevOps, Database Engineer.
  121. DevOps/Database Engineer.
  122. DevOps Engineer.
  123. DevOps Engineer, Security.
  124. Digital Design Engineer.
  125. Director.
  126. Director, Customer Success.
  127. Director, Hardware Engineering.
  128. Director, Investor Relations.
  129. Director, Project Management.
  130. Director, Project Management and Customer Success.
  131. Director, Research Scientist, Quantum Hardware.
  132. Director of Business Development.
  133. Director of Business Development, Government Programs.
  134. Director of Information Security.
  135. Director of Manufacturing Engineering.
  136. Director of Marketing.
  137. Director of Sales.
  138. Director of Sales, Government.
  139. Director of Strategic Partnerships.
  140. Director of Strategic Partnerships and Business Development.
  141. Director of Technical Program Management.
  142. Director of Technical Recruiting.
  143. Disbursements Manager.
  144. EDA Engineer.
  145. Electrical Engineer.
  146. Electrical Engineer I.
  147. Electrical Engineer II.
  148. Electrical Engineer, Control Systems.
  149. Electrical Engineer, Cryo/RF.
  150. Electrical Engineer, Embedded Systems.
  151. Electrical Engineer, FPGA.
  152. Electrical Engineer, Mixed Signal and Microwave.
  153. Electrical Engineer, Production Design and Manufacturing.
  154. Electrical Engineer, Quantum Control Systems.
  155. Electrical FPGA Engineer.
  156. Electronics Engineer.
  157. Electronics Engineer, Hardware and Embedded Software.
  158. Embedded Labview Engineer.
  159. Embedded Software Engineer.
  160. Enabling Technologies Researcher.
  161. Engineer, Quantum Technologies.
  162. Engineering Program Manager.
  163. Engineering Technician.
  164. Engineers or Applied Scientists in Quantum Technologies.
  165. Entry Level Hardware Developer.
  166. Entry Level Software Developer.
  167. Equipment Engineer.
  168. Equipment Engineer, Quantum.
  169. Error Correction Decoder, Software Engineer.
  170. Error Correction Scientist.
  171. Events and Community Manager.
  172. Events Manager.
  173. Executive Assistant.
  174. Experienced Applied Physicist.
  175. Experimental Engineer.
  176. Experimental Physicist.
  177. Experimental Physicist for Product team.
  178. Experimental Quantum Computing Physicist.
  179. External Relations Lead.
  180. Facilities Engineer.
  181. Facilities Technician.
  182. Facilities Manager.
  183. Fab production operations manager.
  184. Fabrication Engineer.
  185. Fabrication Equipment Engineer.
  186. Fabrication Equipment Hardware Engineer.
  187. Fabrication Hardware Engineer.
  188. Firmware Engineer.
  189. FPGA Design Engineer.
  190. FPGA Engineer.
  191. Frontend Engineer.
  192. Full Stack Developer.
  193. Graphic Designer.
  194. Hardware Designer.
  195. Hardware Designer Quantum.
  196. Hardware Development Engineer.
  197. Hardware Development Engineer, Quantum Computing.
  198. Hardware Development Engineer, RF/Microwave Engineering.
  199. Hardware Developer.
  200. Hardware Engineer.
  201. Hardware Engineer, Advanced 3D Packaging.
  202. Hardware Engineer, Analog Mixed Signal ASIC.
  203. Hardware Engineer, Cryogenic Systems.
  204. Hardware Engineer, Cryogenic Systems Mechanical Design.
  205. Hardware Engineer, Devices Surface Scientist.
  206. Hardware Engineer, Digital ASIC for Quantum Computing.
  207. Hardware Engineer, Fabrication Equipment.
  208. Hardware Engineer, Measurement.
  209. Hardware Engineer, Microfabrication Process Development.
  210. Hardware Engineer, Microwave Electronics Test & Design.
  211. Hardware Engineer, Quantum.
  212. Hardware Engineer, Quantum AI, Cryogenic Systems.
  213. Hardware Engineer, Quantum Calibration and Measurement.
  214. Hardware Engineer, Quantum Systems.
  215. Hardware Engineer, Test Automation.
  216. Hardware Engineering Operations Manager.
  217. Hardware Operations Engineer.
  218. Hardware Test Automation Engineer.
  219. Hardware Test Engineer.
  220. Hardware Test Engineer, Cryo/RF.
  221. Hardware Test Engineer, Lab Manager.
  222. Hardware/Software Engineer.
  223. Head of Business Operations.
  224. Head of Error-Corrected Quantum Algorithms.
  225. Head of Marketing.
  226. Head of Strategy.
  227. Head of Sales.
  228. Head of Strategy.
  229. Head of Strategy, Quantum AI.
  230. High Performance Computing Developer.
  231. High Performance Computing Specialist.
  232. HR Generalist.
  233. HR Manager.
  234. IBM Quantum Cloud DevOps Engineer.
  235. IBM Quantum Developer.
  236. IBM Quantum Industry Consultant.
  237. IBM Quantum Industry Consultant Financial Services.
  238. IBM Quantum Industry Consultant Manufacturing.
  239. IBM Quantum Services Offering Manager.
  240. IC Test Engineer.
  241. In-House Attorney.
  242. In-House Attorney, Securities and Corporate Governance.
  243. In-House Attorney Securities and Corporate Governance.
  244. Industrial CASE PhD Studentship.
  245. Industrial CASE PhD Studentship in Next Generation Quantum Communication Systems.
  246. Industrial CASE PhD Studentship in Satellite Quantum Communications.
  247. Infrastructure Engineer.
  248. Infrastructure Engineer, Cloud.
  249. Infrastructure Specialist.
  250. Inside Sales Representative.
  251. Installation Engineer.
  252. Integrated Circuit CAD Engineer.
  253. Integrated Photonics Designer.
  254. Integration Engineer.
  255. Integration Engineer, Control Software.
  256. International Sales Manager.
  257. IT Desktop Support Analyst.
  258. IT Helpdesk Technician.
  259. IT Support Manager.
  260. IT Technician.
  261. Jr. Graphic Designer.
  262. Jr. Quantum Application Scientist.
  263. Junior Graphic Designer.
  264. Junior Quantum Application Engineer.
  265. Junior Quantum Application Scientist.
  266. Junior Quantum Developer.
  267. Junior Software Engineer.
  268. Junior Software Engineer, Back-end
  269. Kernel Developer.
  270. Key Account Manager.
  271. Lab Engineer.
  272. Lab and Facilities Manager.
  273. Lab Manager.
  274. Lab Manager, Hardware Test Engineer.
  275. Lab Technician.
  276. Laboratory Manager.
  277. Laboratory Technician.
  278. Laser Scientist.
  279. Layout Engineer.
  280. Layout Engineer, RF Signal Delivery.
  281. Layout Hardware Engineer.
  282. Lead Electrical Engineer, FPGA.
  283. Lead Electrical FPGA Engineer.
  284. Lead Engineer.
  285. Lead Engineer, Developer Relations.
  286. Lead Engineer, Quantum Error Correction.
  287. Lead Engineering Technician.
  288. Lead Optics Engineer.
  289. Lead Physicist.
  290. Lead for Quantum.
  291. Lead in Quantum Modeling.
  292. Lead Site Reliability Engineer.
  293. Lead Systems Engineer.
  294. Lead Technical Program Manager.
  295. Lead Verification Engineer.
  296. Linux Software Group Manager.
  297. Linux Systems Administrator.
  298. Machine Learning Engineer.
  299. Machine Learning Engineer Customer Projects.
  300. Maintenance Technician.
  301. Manager, Cyber Infrastructure Security, Risk Advisory.
  302. Manager, Sales Operations.
  303. Manager Software Development..
  304. Manager, Strategic Sourcing.
  305. Manufacturing Engineer.
  306. Marketing Communications Manager.
  307. Marketing Manager.
  308. Materials and Process Engineer.
  309. Materials and Process Engineer, PCB/Flex Assembly and Manufacturing.
  310. Materials Management Analyst.
  311. Materials Management Analyst II.
  312. Materials Mgmt Analyst II.
  313. Measurement Engineer.
  314. Measurement Hardware Engineer.
  315. Mechanical Design Engineer.
  316. Mechanical Engineer.
  317. Mechanical Engineer, Specialist.
  318. Mechanical Engineer, 3D Packaging.
  319. Mechanical Engineer, Integrated Devices.
  320. Member of Technical Staff.
  321. Microwave Electronics Hardware Engineer.
  322. Microwave Electronics Test and Design Engineer.
  323. Microwave Electronics Test & Design Hardware Engineer.
  324. Midmarket Sales Executive.
  325. Midsenior Quantum Developer.
  326. ML Engineer.
  327. Model Developer.
  328. Network Analyst.
  329. Network Development Engineer.
  330. Network System Administrator.
  331. Observability Tools Developer.
  332. Offering Management Lead.
  333. Office Administrator.
  334. Office Administrator & Receptionist.
  335. Office Manager.
  336. Open Source Lead, Senior Software Engineer.
  337. Operations Administrator.
  338. Operations Manager.
  339. Operations Program Manager.
  340. Operations Project Analyst.
  341. Optical Assembly Technician.
  342. Optical Designer.
  343. Optical Engineer.
  344. Optical Physicist.
  345. Optical Physicist/Photonics Engineer.
  346. Optical Proximity Correction Engineer.
  347. Optical System Engineer.
  348. Optical Systems Engineer.
  349. Optical Systems Engineer/Physicist.
  350. Optical Systems Physicist.
  351. Optics Engineer.
  352. Optics Engineer/Scientist.
  353. Optics Lab Engineer.
  354. Optics Scientist.
  355. Opto-Mechanical Engineer.
  356. Optomechanical Engineer.
  357. Packaging Hardware Engineer.
  358. Packaging Research Engineer.
  359. Packaging Research Engineer, Advanced Packaging.
  360. Paralegal.
  361. Paralegal/Contract Specialist.
  362. Partner Manager, Quantum Software.
  363. Partner Solutions Architect.
  364. Partner Solutions Architect, Quantum Computing.
  365. Partnerships Program Manager.
  366. Patent Engineer.
  367. PCB Designer.
  368. People Business Partner.
  369. Performance Marketing Manager.
  370. PhD Residency.
  371. PhD Residency, Security Engineer.
  372. PhD Residency, Tensor Networks for Computational Chemistry.
  373. Photonics Device Engineer.
  374. Photonics Engineer.
  375. Photonics Engineer/Scientist.
  376. Photonics Lab Technician.
  377. Photonics Scientist.
  378. Photonics/Optics Engineer.
  379. Photonics/Optics Engineer/Scientist.
  380. Photonics/Optics Scientist.
  381. Physicist.
  382. Physicist, Quantum Algorithms and Applications.
  383. Post Quantum Cryptography SME.
  384. Postdoctoral Fellow.
  385. Postdoctoral Fellow, Quantum Technologies.
  386. Postdoctoral Researcher.
  387. Postdoctoral Researcher, Quantum.
  388. Pre-Sales Technical Engineer.
  389. Principal Atomic Physicist.
  390. Principal / Sr. Principal Analog/Mixed Signal Integrated Circuit (IC) Design Engineer.
  391. Principal Analog/Mixed Signal Integrated Circuit (IC) Design Engineer.
  392. Principal Applications Engineer.
  393. Principal Compiler Engineer.
  394. Principal Electrical Engineer.
  395. Principal Engineer.
  396. Principal Lead for Quantum.
  397. Principal ML Engineer.
  398. Principal Product Manager.
  399. Principal Product Manager, Quantum Computing Hardware.
  400. Principal Quantum Photonics Engineer.
  401. Principal Quantum Physicist.
  402. Principal Quantum Physicist/Sr. Principal Quantum Physicist.
  403. Principal Quantum Software Engineer.
  404. Principal Quantum Software Engineering Manager.
  405. Principal Quantum Software Engineering Manager, Compiler and Runtime.
  406. Principal Quantum Software Engineering Manager Compiler and Runtime.
  407. Principal Quantum Technologist.
  408. Principal Quantum Test Engineer.
  409. Principal Research Scientist.
  410. Principal Software Developer.
  411. Principal Software Developer, Embedded Systems.
  412. Principal Software Developer, Quantum Network Controller.
  413. Principal Software Developer, Quantum Network Protocols.
  414. Principal Software Technical Program Manager.
  415. Principal Staff Scientist.
  416. Principal Staff Scientist, Quantum Chemistry.
  417. Principal Transformational Physicist.
  418. Process Engineer.
  419. Process Engineer, Electro-Optical Manufacturing.
  420. Process/Manufacturing Engineer.
  421. Process and Integration Engineer.
  422. Process and Integration Engineer, Quantum ICs.
  423. Processor Design Engineer.
  424. Product Development Manager.
  425. Product Management Lead, Quantum Computing.
  426. Product Manager.
  427. Product Manager, Quantum Computing.
  428. Product Manager, Quantum Computing Software.
  429. Product Manager, Web and Documentation.
  430. Product Marketing Manager.
  431. Product Marketing Manager — Quantum Computing SDK and Libraries.
  432. Product Owner, Cloud Services.
  433. Product Sales.
  434. Product Sales/Marketing.
  435. Production Technician.
  436. Program Manager.
  437. Program Manager, Environmental, Health, and Safety.
  438. Program Manager, Residency Operations.
  439. Program and Project Manager, Hardware R&D.
  440. Project Executive.
  441. Project Manager.
  442. Project & Operations Manager.
  443. Proposal Specialist.
  444. Purchasing Officer.
  445. Python Software Developer.
  446. Python Software Engineer.
  447. Qiskit Core Developer.
  448. Quality Assurance Engineer.
  449. Quality Engineer.
  450. Quality Engineer, Cloud Services.
  451. Quantum Algorithm Developer.
  452. Quantum Algorithms Developer.
  453. Quantum Algorithms Researcher.
  454. Quantum Algorithms Researcher, ML.
  455. Quantum Algorithms and Applications Physicist.
  456. Quantum Algorithms Scientist.
  457. Quantum Application Engineer.
  458. Quantum Application Engineer, Quantum Networks.
  459. Quantum Applications Engineer.
  460. Quantum Applied Scientist.
  461. Quantum Business Development Engineer.
  462. Quantum Calibration Research Scientist.
  463. Quantum Chemist.
  464. Quantum Chief of Staff.
  465. Quantum Community Builder.
  466. Quantum Compiler, Developer.
  467. Quantum Compiler Developer.
  468. Quantum Compiler Engineer.
  469. Quantum Complexity Theorist.
  470. Quantum Computer Architect.
  471. Quantum Computing Educator.
  472. Quantum Computing Physicist.
  473. Quantum Computing Researcher.
  474. Quantum Computing SME.
  475. Quantum Computing Software Architect.
  476. Quantum Computing Specialist.
  477. Quantum Control Engineer.
  478. Quantum Control Researcher.
  479. Quantum Cryogenic Engineer.
  480. Quantum Deep Learning Research Scientist.
  481. Quantum Developer.
  482. Quantum Developer for Qiskit Tools.
  483. Quantum/EDA Engineer.
  484. Quantum Enabling Technologies Researcher.
  485. Quantum Engineer.
  486. Quantum Engineer, Circuit Design.
  487. Quantum Engineer, Hardware Focus.
  488. Quantum Engineer, Hardware Integration and Scaling Technology.
  489. Quantum Engineer, Physicist.
  490. Quantum Error Correction Research Software Developer.
  491. Quantum Error Correction Researcher.
  492. Quantum FPGA Engineer.
  493. Quantum Hardware Development Engineer.
  494. Quantum Hardware Development Engineer, Device Fabrication.
  495. Quantum Hardware Development Engineer, Device Fabrication, Lithography.
  496. Quantum Hardware Development Engineer, Device Fabrication, Lithography, Quantum Computing.
  497. Quantum Hardware Development Manager.
  498. Quantum Hardware Development Manager, Device Fabrication.
  499. Quantum Hardware Engineer.
  500. Quantum Hardware Engineer, Strontium.
  501. Quantum Hardware Test Engineer.
  502. Quantum Industry Consultant.
  503. Quantum Industry Consultant, Financial Services.
  504. Quantum Industry Consultant, Manufacturing.
  505. Quantum Industry Consultant Manufacturing.
  506. Quantum Information Science Consultant.
  507. Quantum Instrumentation Support Engineer.
  508. Quantum Instrumentation Support Engineer II.
  509. Quantum Machine Learning Research Scientist.
  510. Quantum Machine Learning Researcher.
  511. Quantum Machine Learning Researcher, Research Scientist.
  512. Quantum Machine Learning Scientist.
  513. Quantum Measurement Engineer.
  514. Quantum Mechanic.
  515. Quantum Microwave Engineer.
  516. Quantum Modeling.
  517. Quantum Offering Incubation Technical Manager.
  518. Quantum Operations Technician.
  519. Quantum Optical Research Scientist.
  520. Quantum Optics Lead.
  521. Quantum Optics Research Software Developer.
  522. Quantum Optimization Data Scientist.
  523. Quantum Package System Lead.
  524. Quantum Packaging Simulation Engineer.
  525. Quantum Partnership Manager.
  526. Quantum Photonics Engineer.
  527. Quantum Physicist.
  528. Quantum Platform Engineering Manager.
  529. Quantum Project Leader.
  530. Quantum Readout Hardware Engineer.
  531. Quantum Res Sci, Fabrication, Quantum Communications and Networking.
  532. Quantum Res Sci, Software, Quantum Communications and Networking.
  533. Quantum Research Data Scientist.
  534. Quantum Research Physicist.
  535. Quantum Research Scientist.
  536. Quantum Research Scientist, Circuit Synthesis.
  537. Quantum Research Scientist, Control Stack.
  538. Quantum Research Scientist, Design Tools.
  539. Quantum Research Scientist, Device Fabrication.
  540. Quantum Research Scientist, Device Fabrication, Quantum Computing.
  541. Quantum Research Scientist, Device Test.
  542. Quantum Research Scientist, Error Correction.
  543. Quantum Research Scientist, Fabrication.
  544. Quantum Research Scientist, Fabrication, Quantum Communications and Networking.
  545. Quantum Research Scientist, Hardware.
  546. Quantum Research Scientist, High Performance Simulations.
  547. Quantum Research Scientist, Modeling.
  548. Quantum Research Scientist, Modeling and Error Correction.
  549. Quantum Research Scientist, Optics.
  550. Quantum Research Scientist, Quantum Error Correction.
  551. Quantum Research Scientist, Software.
  552. Quantum Research Scientist, Software, Quantum Communications and Networking.
  553. Quantum Research Scientist, Test and Automation.
  554. Quantum Research Scientist, Test and Measurement.
  555. Quantum Research Scientist Circuit Design.
  556. Quantum Scientist.
  557. Quantum Sensing Engineer.
  558. Quantum Sensing and Materials SME.
  559. Quantum Software Developer.
  560. Quantum Software Engineer.
  561. Quantum Software Engineer, Entry Level.
  562. Quantum Software Engineer, Intermediate Job Level.
  563. Quantum Software Engineering Manager.
  564. Quantum Software Engineering Manager, Compiler and Runtime.
  565. Quantum Software Engineering Manager Compiler and Runtime.
  566. Quantum Solutions Engineer.
  567. Quantum Solutions Scientist.
  568. Quantum Specialist.
  569. Quantum Specialist, Quantum Chemist.
  570. Quantum Support Engineer Fab Technician.
  571. Quantum Systems Engineer.
  572. Quantum Systems Hardware Engineer.
  573. Quantum Technical Marketing Manager.
  574. Quantum Technologies Postdoctoral Fellow.
  575. Quantum Technologist.
  576. Quantum Test Engineer.
  577. Quantum User Experience Designer.
  578. Quantum UX Designer.
  579. R&D Atomic Physicist.
  580. R&D Electrical Engineer.
  581. R&D Lab Technician.
  582. R&D Manager.
  583. R&D Manager, Atomic Physics.
  584. R&D Manager, Photonic Devices and Integrated Circuits.
  585. R&D Manager, Photonics and Optical Devices
  586. R&D Optics Lab Engineer.
  587. Receptionist.
  588. Reliability Engineer.
  589. Research Assistant.
  590. Research Assistant, Quantum.
  591. Research Engineer, High Speed Electronics for Quantum Imaging.
  592. Research Engineer, Photonics and Quantum Prototypes.
  593. Research Engineer, Quantum Algorithms.
  594. Research Engineer, Quantum Algorithms and Applications.
  595. Research Engineer, Quantum Applications.
  596. Research Hardware Engineer.
  597. Research Lithography Process Engineer.
  598. Research Optical Proximity Correction Engineer.
  599. Research Physicist.
  600. Research Physicist, AMO Physics.
  601. Research Physicist, Atomic-Molecular-Optical (AMO) Physics.
  602. Research Scientist.
  603. Research Scientist, Advanced Plasma.
  604. Research Scientist, Chip-based Quantum Communications.
  605. Research Scientist, Cryogenic Signal Integrity.
  606. Research Scientist, Cryptography.
  607. Research Scientist, Experimental Quantum Computing.
  608. Research Scientist, High Speed Electronics for Quantum Imaging.
  609. Research Scientist, Hybrid Cloud and Quantum Computing.
  610. Research Scientist, Integrated Photonics.
  611. Research Scientist, Packaging Fabrication.
  612. Research Scientist, Plasma Processing.
  613. Research Scientist, Quantum.
  614. Research Scientist, Quantum Algorithms.
  615. Research Scientist, Quantum Deep Learning.
  616. Research Scientist, Quantum Chemistry.
  617. Research Scientist, Quantum Computing.
  618. Research Scientist, Quantum Computing, New College Grad.
  619. Research Scientist, Quantum Error Correction.
  620. Research Scientist, Quantum Hardware.
  621. Research Scientist, Quantum Light Detectors.
  622. Research Scientist, Quantum Machine Learning.
  623. Research Scientist, Quantum Optical Systems.
  624. Research Scientist, Quantum-to-Classical Interface Circuits.
  625. Research Scientist, Semiconductor and Photonic Devices.
  626. Research Scientist, Surrogate Modeling for Simulation Workflows.
  627. Research Scientist, Surrogate Modelling for Simulation Workflows.
  628. Research Scientist / Engineer, High Speed Electronics for Quantum Imaging.
  629. Research Software Developer.
  630. Research Software Developer, Quantum Computing Architectures.
  631. Research Software Developer for Quantum Computing Architectures.
  632. Research Software Engineer.
  633. Research Software Engineer, Accelerated Discovery.
  634. Research Software Engineer, Climate & Sustainability.
  635. Research Software Engineer, Quantum Algorithms.
  636. Research Software Engineer, Enablement & Education.
  637. Research Software Engineer, Performance Engineering for Simulation & Modeling.
  638. RF Electronics Engineer.
  639. RF Electronics Engineer/Physicist.
  640. RF Engineer.
  641. RF Engineer, Quantum Computing.
  642. RF Engineer, Quantum Sensing.
  643. RF Technician.
  644. Sales Analyst.
  645. Sales Development Representative.
  646. Sales Development Representative II.
  647. Sales Engineer.
  648. Sales Engineer Quantum Technologies.
  649. Sales Manager.
  650. Sales & Marketing Assistant.
  651. Sales Representative.
  652. Scientific Software Developer.
  653. Scientific Software Developer, Quantum Software.
  654. Scientific Software Engineer.
  655. Scientific Software Engineer, Quantum Software.
  656. Scientist.
  657. Scientist, Chemistry.
  658. Scientist, Laser Development.
  659. Scientist/Physicist.
  660. Scientist, Quantum.
  661. Scientist, Quantum Sensing.
  662. SecOps Engineer.
  663. Security Engineer.
  664. Security and Network Administrator.
  665. Semiconductor and Photonic Device Research Scientist.
  666. Senior Accountant.
  667. Senior Accountant, Financial Reporting.
  668. Senior Advanced Electrical FPGA Engineer.
  669. Senior Advanced Physicist.
  670. Senior Analog Design Engineer.
  671. Senior Analyst.
  672. Senior Analyst, Program Finance.
  673. Senior Analyst-Program Finance.
  674. Senior Applied Cryptographer.
  675. Senior Applied Cryptographer, DS-Crypto.
  676. Senior Applied Scientist.
  677. Senior Applied Scientist, Amazon Braket.
  678. Senior Applied Scientist, Application Development.
  679. Senior Applied Scientist in Quantum Technologies.
  680. Senior Automated Test Engineer.
  681. Senior Back-end Engineer.
  682. Senior Backend Engineer.
  683. Senior CAD/Layout Engineer.
  684. Senior CAD/Layout Engineer, Quantum.
  685. Senior CAD/Layout Engineer Quantum.
  686. Senior Cloud & IT Systems Architect.
  687. Senior Consultant.
  688. Senior Consultant, Technology Strategy & Transformation, Banking.
  689. Senior Control System Technician.
  690. Senior Corporate Paralegal.
  691. Senior Cybersecurity Engineer.
  692. Senior DevOps Engineer.
  693. Senior Devops Engineer, Security.
  694. Senior Digital Design Engineer.
  695. Senior Director, Partnerships for Chemistry and Materials
  696. Senior Electrical Engineer.
  697. Senior Embedded Software Engineer.
  698. Senior Embedded Systems Engineer.
  699. Senior Engineer.
  700. Senior Engineer, Developer Relations.
  701. Senior Engineer, FPGA.
  702. Senior Engineer, Quantum Technologies.
  703. Senior Engineers or Applied Scientists in Quantum Technologies.
  704. Senior Facilities Engineer.
  705. Senior Field-programmable gate array (FPGA) Engineer.
  706. Senior FPGA Engineer.
  707. Senior FPGA and Hardware Design Engineer.
  708. Senior Frontend Developer.
  709. Senior Full Stack Developer.
  710. Senior Hardware Design Engineer.
  711. Senior Hardware Engineer.
  712. Senior HR Manager.
  713. Senior Manager, Software Development.
  714. Senior Manager Software Development.
  715. Senior Manager, Software Engineering.
  716. Senior Manager, Software Engineering, Quantum Operating Systems.
  717. Senior Marketing Communications Manager.
  718. Senior Marketing Specialist.
  719. Senior Math Libraries Engineer, Python APIs.
  720. Senior Math Libraries Engineer, Quantum Computing.
  721. Senior Mechanical Engineer.
  722. Senior Micro Services Developer.
  723. Senior Network Analyst.
  724. Senior Offering Management Lead.
  725. Senior Optical Designer.
  726. Senior Opto-Mechanical Engineer.
  727. Senior Optomechanical Engineer.
  728. Senior Packaging Engineer.
  729. Senior Photonics Device Engineer.
  730. Senior Principal Analog/Mixed Signal Integrated Circuit (IC) Design Engineer.
  731. Senior Principal Atomic Physicist.
  732. Senior Principal Engineer Test, Quantum.
  733. Senior Principal Engineer Test Quantum.
  734. Senior Principal Quantum Physicist.
  735. Senior Principal Quantum Test Engineer.
  736. Senior Principal Transformational Physicist
  737. Senior Process and Integration Engineer.
  738. Senior Process and Integration Engineer, Quantum ICs.
  739. Senior Processor Design Engineer.
  740. Senior Product Manager.
  741. Senior Product Manager, Quantum Computing.
  742. Senior Product Manager, Quantum Computing Hardware.
  743. Senior Program Manager.
  744. Senior Project Manager.
  745. Senior Quantum Applications Engineer.
  746. Senior Quantum Developer.
  747. Senior Quantum Developer/VP Quantum Simulation.
  748. Senior Quantum Engineer.
  749. Senior Quantum Engineer, ASIC Design.
  750. Senior Quantum Photonics Engineer.
  751. Senior Quantum Physicist.
  752. Senior Quantum Research Scientist.
  753. Senior Quantum Scientist, QML focused.
  754. Senior Quantum Sensing Embedded Hardware Engineer.
  755. Senior Quantum Sensing Engineer.
  756. Senior Quantum Software Engineer.
  757. Senior Quantum Solutions Engineer.
  758. Senior R&D Manager.
  759. Senior R&D Manager, Atomic Physics.
  760. Senior R&D Manager, Photonics and Optical Devices.
  761. Senior Research Engineer, Quantum Algorithms and Applications.
  762. Senior Research Scientist.
  763. Senior Research Scientist, Quantum Computing.
  764. Senior Research Scientist, Quantum Cryptography.
  765. Senior Research Scientist, Quantum Cryptography, Theoretical Quantum cryptography.
  766. Senior Scientific Software Engineer, Quantum Software.
  767. Senior Scientist, Chemistry.
  768. Senior Scientist, Quantum Sensing.
  769. Senior Software Developer.
  770. Senior Software Developer, Cloud.
  771. Senior Software Developer, Embedded Systems.
  772. Senior Software Developer, Quantum Network Controller.
  773. Senior Software Developer, Quantum Network Protocols.
  774. Senior Software Development Engineer.
  775. Senior Software Engineer.
  776. Senior Software Engineer, AWS Cryptography.
  777. Senior Software Engineer, Back-end.
  778. Senior Software Engineer, C++.
  779. Senior Software Engineer, Cloud.
  780. Senior Software Engineer, Cloud Experience.
  781. Senior Software Engineer, Compilers.
  782. Senior Software Engineer, Data Services.
  783. Senior Software Engineer, Digital Signal Processing.
  784. Senior Software Engineer, Open Source Lead.
  785. Senior Software Engineer, Quantum Computing.
  786. Senior Software Engineer, Quantum Control.
  787. Senior Software Engineer, Quantum Operating Systems.
  788. Senior Software Engineer, Quantum Tools.
  789. Senior Software Engineering Manager.
  790. Senior Software Engineering Manager, Automation & Calibration.
  791. Senior Solutions Architect.
  792. Senior Staff Research Scientist.
  793. Senior Staff Scientist in Chemistry.
  794. Senior Strategic Sourcing Specialist.
  795. Senior Systems Engineer
  796. Senior Systems Software Engineer.
  797. Senior Technical Program Manager.
  798. Senior System Tester.
  799. Senior Technical Program Manager, Quantum Applications.
  800. Senior Technical Recruiter.
  801. Senior Test Engineer.
  802. Senior Tradeshow and Marketing Specialist.
  803. Senior UX Designer.
  804. Senior UX Designer, Professional Services.
  805. Service Engineer.
  806. Service and Installation Engineer.
  807. Services Offering Manager.
  808. Shipping Coordinator.
  809. Site Reliability Engineer.
  810. Social Media Coordinator.
  811. Social Media Manager.
  812. Software Architect.
  813. Software Architect, Quantum Computing.
  814. Software Dev Engineer.
  815. Software Dev Engineer II.
  816. Software Dev Engineer II, Amazon Braket.
  817. Software Dev Engineer III.
  818. Software Developer.
  819. Software Developer, Algorithms.
  820. Software Developer, Cloud.
  821. Software Developer, Frontend.
  822. Software Developer, Quantum Compilation.
  823. Software Development Engineer.
  824. Software Development Engineer, Design and Simulation.
  825. Software Development Engineer, Quantum Computing.
  826. Software Development Engineer, Quantum Technologies.
  827. Software Development Manager.
  828. Software Development Manager, Quantum Software.
  829. Software Engineer.
  830. Software Engineer, Applied Cryptography.
  831. Software Engineer, AWS Cryptography.
  832. Software Engineer, Backend.
  833. Software Engineer, Backend/Infrastructure.
  834. Software Engineer, Compilers.
  835. Software Engineer, C++.
  836. Software Engineer, Customer Projects.
  837. Software Engineer, Error Correction Decoder.
  838. Software Engineer, Golang.
  839. Software Engineer, Infrastructure.
  840. Software Engineer, Quantum Computing.
  841. Software Engineer, Quantum Computing Service.
  842. Software Engineer, Quantum Optimization.
  843. Software Engineer for Quantum Optimization.
  844. Software Engineer III, Data Systems.
  845. Software Engineer III, Error Correction Decoder.
  846. Software Engineer III, Qkernel.
  847. Software Engineer III, Quantum.
  848. Software Engineer III, Quantum Architecture.
  849. Software Engineering Manager.
  850. Software Engineering Manager, Automation & Calibration.
  851. Software Engineering Manager, Quantum Computing.
  852. Software Engineering Manager, Quantum Operating Systems.
  853. Software Infrastructure.
  854. Software Infrastructure Team Lead.
  855. Software Product Designer, UX.
  856. Software Programmer.
  857. Software Quality Assurance Engineer.
  858. Software Success Engineer.
  859. Software Technical Program Manager.
  860. Solid State Engineer.
  861. Solid State Physicist.
  862. Solid State Physicist/Engineer.
  863. Solutions Architect.
  864. Solutions Engineer.
  865. Specialist, Mechanical Engineer.
  866. Sr Accountant.
  867. Sr Micro Services Developer.
  868. Sr Principal Engineer Test Quantum.
  869. Sr Product Manager.
  870. Sr R&D Manager, Photonics and Optical Devices.
  871. Sr. Accountant.
  872. Sr. Advanced Electrical FPGA Engineer.
  873. Sr. Applied Cryptographer.
  874. Sr. Applied Cryptographer, DS-Crypto.
  875. Sr. Manager Software Development.
  876. Sr. Marketing Communications Manager.
  877. Sr. Micro Services Developer.
  878. Sr. Network Analyst.
  879. Sr. Offering Management Lead.
  880. Sr. Principal Analog/Mixed Signal Integrated Circuit (IC) Design Engineer.
  881. Sr. Principal Atomic Physicist.
  882. Sr. Principal Quantum Physicist.
  883. Sr. Principal Quantum Test Engineer.
  884. Sr. Principal Engineer Test Quantum.
  885. Sr. Principal Transformational Physicist
  886. Sr. Processor Design Engineer.
  887. Sr. Product Manager.
  888. Sr. Program Manager.
  889. Sr. R&D Manager — Atomic Physics.
  890. Sr. R&D Manager, Photonics and Optical Devices.
  891. Sr. Software Development Engineer.
  892. Sr. Strategic Sourcing Specialist.
  893. Sr. Technical Program Manager.
  894. Staff Accountant, Financial Reporting.
  895. Staff Frontend Engineer.
  896. Staff Analog Mixed Signal IC Design Engineer.
  897. Staff Scientist.
  898. Staff Scientist, Quantum Chemistry.
  899. Staff Software Engineer.
  900. Staff Software Engineer, Infrastructure.
  901. Staff PCB Designer.
  902. Staff Physicist, R&D.
  903. Staff Quantum Optical Research Scientist.
  904. Staff Quantum Sensing Engineer.
  905. Staff Research Scientist.
  906. Staff Scientist, Laser Development.
  907. Staff Scientist in Chemistry.
  908. Staff Software Engineer, Automation and Calibration.
  909. Staff Software Engineer, Quantum Tools.
  910. Staff Technical Program Manager.
  911. Subject Matter Expert.
  912. Superconducting Qubit Researcher.
  913. Support Engineer.
  914. Support Engineering Manager.
  915. Support Engineering Manager Fabrication.
  916. Support Engineering Manager Fabrication, Quantum Computing.
  917. Sustaining Operations Manager.
  918. System Architect.
  919. System Architect/Designer.
  920. System Assembly.
  921. System Assembly/Maintenance Technician.
  922. System Designer.
  923. System Operator.
  924. System Tester.
  925. System Validation Engineer.
  926. Systems Engineer.
  927. Systems Administrator, Linux.
  928. Systems Software Engineer.
  929. Talent Acquisition.
  930. Talent Acquisition Lead.
  931. Technical Copywriter.
  932. Technical Customer Success Analyst.
  933. Technical Marketing.
  934. Technical Marketing Engineer.
  935. Technical Marketing Engineer, Quantum Computing and HPC.
  936. Technical Marketing Manager.
  937. Technical Product Manager.
  938. Technical Program Manager.
  939. Technical Program Manager, Quantum Computing.
  940. Technical Program Manager, System Integration.
  941. Technical Project Manager.
  942. Technical Project Manager, Quantum Machine Learning.
  943. Technical Sales.
  944. Technical Sales/Marketing.
  945. Technical Security Consultant.
  946. Technical Security Consultant / Solutions Architect.
  947. Technical Solutions Specialist.
  948. Technical Solutions Specialist Cybersecurity.
  949. Technician.
  950. Technology Editor.
  951. Test Development Engineer.
  952. Test Development Engineer, Hardware/Embedded.
  953. Test Development Engineer (Hardware/Embedded).
  954. Test Engineer.
  955. Test Engineer, Cryo-RF.
  956. Test/Measurement Engineer.
  957. Theoretical Physicist.
  958. Thin Film Support Engineer.
  959. Thin Film Support Engineer, Quantum.
  960. Tools Developer.
  961. Tradeshow and Marketing Specialist.
  962. Transformational Physicist
  963. UI Designer.
  964. UI Engineer.
  965. UI/UX Designer.
  966. UX Designer.
  967. UX Engineer.
  968. UX/UI Engineer.
  969. Verification Engineer.
  970. Vice President.
  971. Vice President of Quantum Development.
  972. Vice President Quantum Simulation.
  973. Visual Analytics Engineer.
  974. VP Accounting.
  975. VP Quantum Simulation.
  976. Waveguide Metrology Researcher.
  977. Waveguide Metrology Researcher, Augmented Reality.
  1. Algorithm Designer.
  2. Algorithm Developer.
  3. Computer Scientist.
  4. Kernel Developer.
  5. Mathematician.
  6. Model Developer.
  7. Quantum Complexity Theorist.
  8. Quantum Community Builder.
  9. Quantum Computer Architect.
  10. Quantum Control Researcher.
  11. Quantum Cryogenic Engineer.
  12. Quantum FPGA Engineer.
  13. Quantum Microwave Engineer.
  14. Quantum User Experience Designer.
  15. Subject Matter Expert.
  16. Superconducting Qubit Researcher.

Personas for audiences of marketing

Personas are especially relevant to the marketing of products, services, brands, and corporate exposure and awareness. These personas are the audiences for marketing efforts. Some of the broad categories of personas relevant to marketing include:

  1. Executives.
  2. Managers.
  3. Budget planners.
  4. Purchasing managers.
  5. Technical managers.
  6. Staff.
  7. IT staff.
  8. Technical staff.
  9. Technical media.
  10. General media.
  11. Investors.
  12. Investment analysts.
  13. Government officials.
  14. Government policymakers and technical analysts.

Vendor category-specific personas

Some personas may be specific to particular vendor categories.

Use case category-specific personas

Some personas may be specific to particular use case categories.

Use case-specific personas

Some personas may be specific to particular use cases.

Application areas for quantum computing

Applications will constitute many of the use cases for quantum computing.

Application areas = particular applications + application categories

The term application area is ambiguous. It could refer to either:

  1. A particular application.
  2. A category of applications.

Use case categories for quantum computing

Use cases specify what people are attempting to accomplish with quantum computers.

  1. Optimization, planning, and logistics.
  2. Forecasting.
  3. Financial modeling.
  4. Drug design and discovery.
  5. Genomics.
  6. Cybersecurity and cryptography.
  7. Molecular modeling.
  8. Chemistry modeling, computational chemistry.
  9. Material design and modeling.
  10. Aerospace physics.
  11. Quantum simulation — simulation of physical systems at the quantum mechanical level.
  12. Artificial intelligence, machine learning.
  13. Random number generation.

Application areas as use case categories for quantum computing

Application areas will generally correspond to use case categories for quantum computing.

Use cases for quantum computing

Use cases specify what people are attempting to accomplish with quantum computers.

  1. An application may span multiple use cases. The same application may be applicable in multiple use cases.
  2. A use case may cover multiple applications. A single use case may cover multiple applications. A number of applications may be needed to fully cover a single use case.
  1. An application category may span multiple use case categories.
  2. A use case category may cover multiple application categories.

Abstract use cases

Generally, use cases will be specific applications and specific problems to be addressed, but there is also a higher-level of use case concerning the abstract nature of the use cases:

  1. General purpose quantum computing. Excludes special-purpose quantum computing devices and single-function quantum computers.
  2. NISQ era quantum computing. Limited to what can be accomplished using noisy qubits.
  3. Fault-tolerant quantum computing. Implies general purpose.
  4. Single-function quantum computer. Dramatically limits the application use cases.
  5. Special purpose quantum computer. Ditto.
  6. Special purpose quantum computing device. Ditto.
  7. Specialized physics simulation device. Limits applications to a particular field. Or any field in which a problem can be reduced specifically to a physics problem supported by the device.

Access patterns for quantum computing

Many access patterns need to be included from classical computing to the extent that classical computing technology is combined with quantum computing since much of quantum applications and support software and tools will be classical code.

  1. Construct a concise, clear, complete, and accurate problem statement. Clearly state the problem to be addressed.
  2. Gather requirements.
  3. Analyze requirements.
  4. Conceptualize solutions.
  5. Specify requirements.
  6. Evaluate alternatives for solutions.
  7. Choose a solution.
  8. Architect solutions.
  9. Design.
  10. Implement.
  11. Code.
  12. Review.
  13. Test.
  14. Unit testing.
  15. Module testing.
  16. System testing.
  17. Debug.
  18. Model, measure, analyze, and characterize performance of computers, algorithms, and applications.
  19. Evaluate and compare capabilities of competing computers, algorithms, and applications.
  20. Package.
  21. Manufacture.
  22. Market.
  23. Sell.
  24. Distribute.
  25. Acquire.
  26. Evaluate.
  27. Deploy.
  28. Operate.
  29. Support.
  30. Diagnose.
  31. Maintain.
  32. Upgrade.
  33. Enhance.
  1. Research.
  2. Reading research papers.
  3. Writing research papers.
  4. Literature review of published research papers.
  5. Peer review of research papers submitted for publication.
  6. Education. All levels. All areas.
  7. Training. All levels. All areas.
  8. Prototyping.
  9. Experimentation.
  10. Writing specifications.
  11. Designing system software.
  12. Designing support software.
  13. Designing applications.
  14. Design reviews.
  15. Coding.
  16. Managing source control for code and other files.
  17. Managing source code repositories. Such as GitHub.
  18. Code reviews.
  19. Building executables.
  20. Executing code.
  21. Testing code.
  22. Debugging code.
  23. Evaluating performance.
  24. Evaluating capacity.
  25. Managing release of software.
  26. Documenting systems.
  27. Documenting software.
  28. Deploying software.
  29. Manufacturing components, modules, and full computer systems.
  30. Marketing systems.
  31. Marketing software.
  32. Selling systems.
  33. Selling software.
  34. Installing systems.
  35. Installing software.
  36. Distributing systems.
  37. Distributing software.
  38. Writing books.
  39. Writing and releasing press releases for achievements and announcements.
  40. Reaching out to media for coverage of announcements.
  41. Media coverage of quantum computing.
  42. Social media engagement.
  43. Development and distribution of marketing materials.
  44. Managing cloud-based services.
  45. Supporting systems.
  46. Supporting software.
  47. Developing, using, and enforcing legal contracts and other legal agreements.
  48. Defending from legal actions.
  49. Filing patents.
  50. Protecting intellectual property.
  51. Licensing intellectual property.
  52. Activities associated with using and contributing to open source projects.
  53. Recruiting. Outreach. Identifying candidates. Interviewing candidates. Making offers to candidates. Onboarding new hires.
  54. Personnel management. Basic supervision. Advice. Coaching. Mentoring. Reviews. Hiring. Firing. Dispute resolution. Liaison.
  1. Research quantum computing technologies. Especially qubit and qubit control technologies.
  2. Qubit hardware engineering tasks.
  3. FPGA engineering tasks for quantum computing.
  4. Qubit control engineering tasks.
  5. QPU management and control software tasks.
  6. Quantum circuit execution tasks.
  7. Overall quantum computer system engineering tasks.
  8. Overall quantum computer system software engineering tasks.
  9. Designing electrical power and cabling for overall quantum computer system.
  10. Mechanical engineering for overall quantum computer system.
  11. Cryostat mechanical engineering tasks.
  12. Cryostat electrical engineering tasks.
  13. Prototyping quantum computing tools. Including SDKs.
  14. Prototyping quantum computing support software.
  15. Prototyping quantum algorithms.
  16. Prototyping quantum applications.
  17. Research and develop algorithms for future use. May not run on current real hardware or current simulators.
  18. Experimentation with quantum algorithms.
  19. Experimentation with quantum applications.
  20. Experimentation with quantum computing tools.
  21. Experimentation with quantum computing support software.
  22. Defining business cases for quantum computing.
  23. Transforming real-world problems into quantum algorithms and quantum applications.
  24. Raising awareness of quantum computing.
  25. Becoming aware of quantum computing.
  26. Achieving quantum literacy.
  27. Becoming Quantum Ready.
  28. Learning quantum computing. Many levels. Many areas.
  29. Defining organizational vision.
  30. Defining product visions.
  31. Defining product roadmaps.
  32. Developing product specifications.
  33. Designing quantum algorithmic building blocks.
  34. Writing quantum algorithmic building blocks.
  35. Debugging quantum algorithmic building blocks.
  36. Writing libraries of quantum algorithmic building blocks.
  37. Testing quantum algorithmic building blocks.
  38. Documenting quantum algorithmic building blocks.
  39. Designing quantum algorithms.
  40. Writing quantum algorithms.
  41. Debugging quantum algorithms.
  42. Writing libraries of quantum algorithms.
  43. Testing quantum algorithms.
  44. Documenting quantum algorithms.
  45. Simulation of algorithms.
  46. Preparing application data as input data for a quantum circuit.
  47. Invoking quantum algorithms.
  48. Processing quantum results for use by the classical code of the application.
  49. Model, measure, calculate, analyze, and characterize performance of quantum algorithms and quantum applications.
  50. Model, measure, calculate, and characterize quantum advantage.
  51. Designing quantum design patterns.
  52. Writing quantum design patterns.
  53. Debugging quantum design patterns.
  54. Writing libraries of quantum design patterns.
  55. Testing quantum design patterns.
  56. Documenting quantum design patterns.
  57. Designing quantum application frameworks.
  58. Writing quantum application frameworks.
  59. Debugging quantum application frameworks.
  60. Testing quantum application frameworks.
  61. Documenting quantum application frameworks.
  62. Documenting quantum computer principles of operation.
  63. Writing books on quantum computing.
  64. Writing and releasing press releases for quantum computing achievements and announcements.
  65. Reaching out to media for coverage of quantum computing announcements.
  66. Media coverage of quantum computing.
  67. Social media engagement on quantum computing.
  68. Development and distribution of marketing materials on quantum computing.
  69. Pre-sales support for selling quantum computers.
  70. Post-sales support for quantum computers.
  71. Pre-sales support for selling quantum computing services.
  72. Post-sales support for quantum computing services.
  73. Providing support for quantum computers.
  74. Providing support for quantum computing services.
  75. Troubleshooting issues and difficulties with quantum algorithms and quantum applications.
  76. Calibrate quantum processors.

Access patterns by persona

Just to highlight and emphasize the point made in the preceding section that many access patterns are persona-specific, although that level of detail is far beyond the scope for this informal paper.

The Hitchhiking Cat’s Guide to Getting a Job in Quantum Computing

Since a lot of this paper is about jobs, I thought I would share this interesting post from Jay Gambetta of IBM on Medium about getting a job in quantum computing:

  • The Hitchhiking Cat’s Guide to Getting a Job in Quantum Computing
  • By Jay Gambetta
  • October 18, 2018
  • While traveling around to give talks about quantum computing, I’ve noticed two things — the enthusiasm of our growing community, and the frequency of the following question: “I don’t know much about quantum physics, but can I get into quantum computing?” The answer I give today is very different from what it was several years ago. When I finished my PhD in theoretical quantum physics, the path to working in quantum computing was narrow, but now that single path has broadened and branched into a set of many entry paths. These paths involve specialties that include various types of researchers, architects, theorists, developers, designers, and community builders.
  • https://medium.com/qiskit/the-hitchhiking-cats-guide-to-getting-a-job-in-quantum-computing-da7e3bb9ff64
  1. Superconducting Qubit Researcher.
  2. Quantum Control Researcher.
  3. Quantum Error Correction Researcher.
  4. Quantum Computer Architect.
  5. Quantum Complexity Theorist.
  6. Quantum Algorithms Researcher.
  7. Quantum Cryogenic Engineer.
  8. Quantum Microwave Engineer.
  9. Quantum FPGA Engineer.
  10. Quantum Software Developer.
  11. Quantum Community Builder.
  12. Quantum User Experience Designer.

What’s not in this paper

As mentioned at the start, this informal paper is not intended to be a fully comprehensive and definitive treatment of personas, use cases, and access patterns for quantum computing, but more of an introduction and framework to surface a lot of the issues that would need to be addressed for a comprehensive and definitive treatment of the topic.

  1. Lots of fine details.
  2. Comprehensive list of personas.
  3. Detailed name for each persona.
  4. Detailed descriptions for all personas. Analogous to job descriptions.
  5. Personas for purely administrative and housekeeping roles.
  6. Comprehensive list of use cases. Specific applications rather than general categories.
  7. Detailed descriptions for all use cases.
  8. Comprehensive list of access patterns.
  9. Comprehensive list of persona-specific access patterns. Commonly job responsibilities.
  10. Access patterns for purely administrative and housekeeping activities. Email. Scheduling. Personnel management.
  11. Access patterns for defining quantum computations. Quantum circuits. Quantum logic gates.
  12. Detailed descriptions for all access patterns.
  13. Full list of job titles.
  14. Details for all roles.
  15. Detailed job descriptions.
  16. Best practices for job descriptions.
  17. All classical-focused personas, use cases, and access patterns.
  18. Comprehensive list of specific applications. Limited to broad categories.
  19. Comprehensive list of all industries.
  20. List of specific vendors.
  21. Comprehensive list of all areas of interest.
  22. Detailed skills for personas and access patterns.
  23. Details for career paths.
  24. Education requirements.
  25. Credential requirements.
  26. Certification requirements.

Skills for quantum computing

Detailed skills needed for quantum computing are beyond the scope of this informal paper.

Career paths in quantum computing

Details on career paths in quantum computing are beyond the scope of this informal paper.

Education for a career in quantum computing

Although education for the jobs associated with many personas would seem of relevant interest, education is beyond the scope of this informal paper.

Training for a career in quantum computing

Although training for the jobs associated with many personas would seem of relevant interest, training is beyond the scope of this informal paper.

My original proposal for this topic

For reference, here is the original proposal I had for this topic. It may have some value for some people wanting a more concise summary of this paper.

  • Initial thoughts on personas, use cases, and access patterns for quantum computing. Highlight at least the high-level issues involved. Still too complex to even produce a comprehensive framework, let alone the full range of personas, use cases, and access patterns. Multiple communities — research, academia, hardware vendors, tool vendors, customers, users, managers, executives, board members, government policymakers, government officials, investors, analysts, journalists. Intersection with personas, use cases, and access patterns of classical computing.

Summary and conclusions

  1. Personas, use cases, and access patterns enable us to discuss quantum computing in terms of who is trying to do what and how they are going to do it.
  2. Personas, use cases, and access patterns lie at the intersection of workforce and applications, with personas corresponding to jobs, positions, or roles of the workforce, and use cases corresponding to applications.
  3. Quantum computing falls under the general rubric of STEM — Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, just as does classical computing.
  4. Most of the jobs, personas, roles, use cases, and access patterns mentioned in this paper fall under STEM.
  5. A moderate fraction do not fall directly under STEM, but since they at least loosely support STEM work, they can still be at least loosely considered as part of or related to or supportive of STEM.
  6. I define QSTEM to focus on the subset of STEM which relates most closely to quantum computing and quantum information science in general.
  7. So this paper focuses on personas, use cases, and access patterns of QSTEM.
  8. Personas represent the individuals performing roles in jobs or positions.
  9. Job titles may or may not accurately reflect the true nature of the underlying persona or role.
  10. Use cases are typically the applications or problems being addressed.
  11. Access patterns are the operations, skills, capabilities, functions, tasks, methods, and activities which personas are performing.
  12. Access patterns generally align with job responsibilities or role responsibilities — persona responsibilities.
  13. Different personas have different needs, and different use cases have different methods.
  14. Some personas have common needs and share use cases, but not always.
  15. Some access patterns are common between multiple personas and use cases, but not always.
  16. There is a significant degree of overlap between quantum computing and classical computing, so many of the personas, use cases, and access patterns of classical computing also appear in quantum computing.
  17. Every technical field deserves a detailed enumeration of personas, use cases, and access patterns. Quantum computing included.

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Freelance Consultant

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